Buy a large piece of land. A deer farm cannot be run on a five acre plot of land. You will need at least 10 acres to start a small deer farm, however, if you plan on making a living at this vocation then you will need at least a 100 acre tract of land. This land will need to be fenced properly to keep the deer from crossing over onto public or private land and to prevent the spread of disease. Proper fencing is also needed to keep out predators and poachers.
Understand all of the laws associated with ranching deer. For example, many states have deer farm fencing laws that must be followed. Other laws that will apply to your deer farm will deal with the humane treatment and proper care of your animals and the cleanliness of your butchering areas.
Apply for all of the licenses and insurances that you need to run your deer farm. You will need to talk to your local department of fish and game, to determine if your state requires any special licenses to farm game animals. You will also need to talk to your local licensing board to determine what business licenses and insurance products you will need to do business.
Find a supplier for you initial herd of deer. Established deer farms are going to be your best bet for finding deer to breed. It is a good idea to get deer from a variety of suppliers to increase the genetic diversity of your herd.
Buy supplies, set up shelters and be ready to hit the ground running by the time your deer arrive to your deer farm.