Surfactants lower the surface tension of water, making it easier to wet down an area to be cleaned. Surfactants may also act as degreasers. Soap is a familiar surfactant used in some cleaners, but chemical surfactants are more common. For example, alcohol ethoxylates and linear alkylbenzene sulfonate are commonly found in dish detergent, laundry detergent and all-purpose household cleaners. Alkyl sulfates like sodium lauryl sulfate are used in hand cleaners and dish soaps.
Sanitizers and Disinfectants
Antimicrobial agents reduce or destroy bacteria, viruses and molds. Pine oil, benzalkonium chloride, ammonium hydroxide or household ammonia are often included in cleaning products for their antimicrobial properties. Some antibacterial agents, like isopropanol, double as a solvent. Sodium hypochlorite, or chlorine bleach, is an oxidative agent used to remove stains from laundry. But bleach is also included in many toilet, shower and bathroom cleaners for its anti-fungal, anti-viral and anti-bacterial properties.
Cleaning solvents are used to dissolve oil and grease. Alcohols like ethanol and isopropanol are two of the most common solvents found in cleaning products. Propylene glycol is sometimes added to cleaning solutions as both a solvent and surfactant. Cleaning products marketed as eco-friendly often include d-limonene, a solvent extracted from citrus peels.