A mud pump is used when drilling oil wells to circulate drilling fluid through the drilling rig, which lubricates and cools the drilling bit. The mud pump also helps plaster the sides of a well to prevent it from caving in and removes rock cuttings to the surface.
In rotary drilling for oil wells, a hole is drilled by means of a drill bit that moves in a circular motion, breaking rock at the bottom of the hole. A typical rotary drill includes a drilling rig, mug pump, a string of drill rods and a drilling tool to grind rock.
There are two major types of mud pumps: two-cylinder, double-acting and three-cylinder, single-acting. Its replaceable pistons travel through liners and are driven by a crankshaft (a device that transmits rotary motion) powered by an engine.
The mud pump is a reciprocal pump, which means a piston moves up and down in a cylinder to force out fluid. Using a system of valves, pistons and liners, the mud pump circulates fluid down into the hole to cool the drilling parts.