How to Determine the Number of Toilets in a Building

Several items must be planned into any building.

These include emergency items such as fire escapes and first aid kits down to the basic necessities of life such as bathroom facilities. The proper number of bathrooms is not only convenient, federal guidelines dictate the minimum number of toilets to be located within a building.

Determine the number of employees who will be occupying the building at any given point in time. Generally, a building is designed to house a certain number of employees, and the restroom facilities must match the maximum occupancy number.

Compare the number of employees to the OSHA chart for number of required restrooms.

1 to15 employees: 1 restroom 16 to 35 employees: 2 restrooms 36 to 55 employees: 3 restrooms 56 to 80 employees: 4 restrooms 81 to 110 employees: 5 restrooms 111 to 150 employees: 6 restrooms

Evaluate the availability of restrooms to employees. OSHA requires that restrooms be "readily" available to employees. In some cases this does not require the restroom to be physically located in a particular structure. If an available restroom is nearby and employees have uninterrupted access to these facilities, it may meet federal guidelines.

Install the proper restroom devices. The number of restrooms listed in the table indicates the number of water closets required. A water closet is a device that will allow defecation as well as urination, so a urinal will not count toward the total needed.

Things You Will Need

  • Number of building occupants
  • OSHA code


  • Studies by the National Institutes of Health reported in NIH Publication No. 95-2754, July 1995, have shown that females need to urinate more frequently than males to avoid certain health risks. If a building will occupy a larger number of females, more restrooms may be required.


  • If the restroom facilities being used are in another building, be certain access to these restrooms is not limited by the hours or other operations of this business or building occupant.

About the Author

Tom Raley is a freelance writer living in central Arkansas. He has been writing for more than 20 years and his short stories and articles have appeared in more than 25 different publications including P.I. Magazine, Pulsar and Writer's Digest.