The most important parts of an electric oven are its heating elements, which consist of internal metal devices that produce warmth. Internally, an oven has a broiling element that heats from above, and a baking element that heats from below, according to Partselect.com. The broiling and baking elements can be used separately or together.
Most modern ovens come with a range that sits on top of the oven casing. The range consists of four or more burners that create heat from below to use for pan or pot cooking. These ranges can vary in design from coiled metal heating rings to hidden electric heat radiating devices. Sometimes, even if an oven is electric, it will have gas ranges, which is a preference for some cooks.
Racks are metal trays that sit inside the oven, and provide space and stability for the food cooking. Most ovens have at least two racks, and some have three or more. The closer an item on a rack is to either the broiling or baking elements, the faster it will cook.
The controls of an oven sit above the range and include the thermostats for each heating element as well as on/off switches for the range and oven. You can control the degree to heat of either the broiling or baking elements of an oven or the power of the ranges this way.