American Welding Society or AWS sets guidelines and standard procedures for welding in the United States. AWS submits standards to the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) for adoption, making them standards for all industries. AWS welding standards require a written procedure of how the items will be welded and qualification of the procedure before welding begins. Welders must also be qualified before they are allowed to weld.
Welding Certifications and Qualifications
AWS QC1 is the standard procedure for certifying welding inspectors. AWS QC13-2006 is the Standard for AWS Certification of Welding Supervisors. AWS D109-69 is the standard qualification of welding procedures and welders for piping and tubing. ANSI/AWS C216A is the guide for thermal spray operator qualification. This standard provides procedures and the necessary documentation for both thermal spraying operator qualification and equipment qualification. AWS B30-41 is the standard qualification procedure for welding processes. This procedure can be used to qualify new welding procedures, such as with new materials or new equipment.
AWS standard B21 is the “Base Metal Grouping for Welding Procedure and Performance Qualification”. This standard lists the different base metal groups, the identification of material number groupings. AWS welding procedures are recommended for each base metal as determined in these metal groupings.
AWS A516 is the standard procedure for welding titanium. AWS D12 is the standard procedure for welding aluminum. According to “Aluminum Structures” by J. Randolph Kissell and Robert Ferry, “aluminum and steel welding differ significantly in that AWS D12 does not allow prequalified joint details and welding procedures for aluminum” AWS D14 gives the recommended procedures for welding reinforced steel. AWS D91 lists standard procedures for welding sheet metal. AWS B22 is the standard for brazing procedures and performance qualifications.
AWS A61 gives the recommended safe practices for gas-shielded arc welding. ANSI/AWS Z491 is the standard for safety in welding, cutting and allied processes. ANSI/AWS F14-97 determines the methods for analyzing airborne particles created by welding. ANSI/AWS F23M gives the specifications for the proper use and required performance for welding curtains and screens.
Welding Design Guidelines
AWS D84-61 gives the recommended practices for automotive welding design. AWS D11 is the structural welding code. AWS D15 is the bridge welding code. AWS C33 gives recommended design and inspection guidelines for brazed components.
Welding Inspection Guidelines
AWS guidelines provide instructions on how to visually inspect welds. Certified welding inspectors are trained in how to follow AWS inspection procedures. AWS C38 gives the recommended practices of using ultrasound to inspect brazed joints. AWS B110 is the guide for nondestructive examination of welds.
The American Welding Society also gives standards and recommended procedures for spray-on coatings to protect metal from corrosion. ANSI/AWS C218 states AWS guidelines for protecting steel with thermal sprayed coatings. ANSI/AWS C223 gives recommendations on how to apply thermal sprayed coatings.
- “Building Design and Construction Hazards”; David MacCollum, Richard Hughes; 2005
- “Thermally Sprayed Metal Coatings to Protect Steel Pilings”; James Ellor, Walter Young, John Repp; 2004
- “McGraw-Hill Construction Locator”; Joseph A. MacDonald; 2006
- “Titanium: a Technical Guide”; Matthew J. Donachie; 2000
- “Aluminum Structures”; J. Randolph Kissell, Robert Ferry; 2002
- “Brazing”; Mel M. Schwartz; 2003